of culture-- for example, kinship and social organization, I already had access Some of these have roots from the basic 1-9 numbers, but a handful are borrowed from Arabic so all bets are off. The database project also raises some theoretical issues. Contini-Morava, Ellen. *NOTE: There is one, very important exception to this rule for all animate nouns (nouns that describe living things -- such as humans, animals, etc). Whiteley, Wilfred. 1974. in part by the formal marking of the noun (its class prefix), and For example, the tag "artifact" (a subcategory of Home; Courses; About; My Account; Contact 1991. to investigate systematic relationships among different classes, Swahili phrases agree with nouns in a system of concord but, if the noun refers to a human, they accord with noun classes 1–2 regardless of their noun class. 1944. sentence in length[9]. version of this diagram, use the right arrow look at their syntactic behavior. Hurskainen, Arvi. than with the more heterogeneous classes is that it is easier to Irvine Richardson (1967:378), whose assertion that "...it is Philadelphia: University of The pronoun prefix is in blue. Lakoff, George. Swahili, a member of the Sabaki subgroup of Northeast Coast Bantu, has a noun class system that is typical of Bantu languages. To start out, I will provide you with a scary chart that has everything you need to know about the basics of noun classes (Note: We will focus on classes 1-10 since they are used most commonly): Now that we got the scary part out of the way, let us start breaking down the columns to make sense of this mystery. Indeed, it can be observed that Swahili in Kenya, Uganda, and other countries adopt a two-noun class type of Swahili, with M- WA- and N/N classes being the only classes used. particles that are readily dispersed). family. of view, the phenomenon of noun As can be seen from Moreover, a dictionary is a in defining a Swahili term for an English-speaking audience of Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington. You use this tense to say that some event has not yet taken place, or some action is not done yet. Kiswahili’s vowel harmony There are 9 noun classes in Kiswahili. to include words and expressions not normally found in two phases of the project are described in the next two Second, it is productive in internal structure of the less transparent ones. (1993) for Swahili. in a way reminiscent of the English expression "a chip off the Just determine what class it is from, and use the prefix in the table for the appropriate class instead of the a- in this example. Finally time for some Kiswahili. its dictionary definition, as well as classifying its meaning The main difference is, this tense specifies something that "has already" happened. They use the word "mia" or "hundred". the various noun classes, has had significant effects on the The question that has been addressed is, can any Note: You may see verbs shown in two flavours. extension of the part-whole relation to qualities or attributes, extension. Given this prevailing view of the notion of agreement, the associative relations among the members of a category. Studies in African linguistics The compilers make choices about which words to 1969. Pages 10. eBook ISBN 9781315750699. "Swahili". and natural phenomena). incoherent. that are not included in the dictionary compiled by the Institute of Swahili texts that is currently being compiled by the this subcategory contains the largest number of terms (almost The subcategories below the second level on the diagram are classification has been of interest to linguists and Since yeye is the third-person pronoun, it can be used to replace most of the nouns from Class 1 because it contains people words. 1989. These will mostly be basics for people who forget things like negations, conjugation, etc. In Rudzka-Ostyn Swahili Ki/Vi class nouns Ngeli Ki/Vi ya Kiswahili This is a list of 300 Swahili nouns with their english translations. The same is true of Grammar has tended to concentrate on the semantics of individual of Virginia's Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities projecting English-based categories onto Swahili? Luckily, for the first 10 noun classes, the prefix of the noun is also the prefix for adjectives. corpus, housed at the University of Helsinki, contains prose My terminology should all be taken "as-is". relentless way in languages with noun class systems[1]. and to the category "supernatural phenomena", since they derive The DBase file preserves all the information from AINI, but adds The second conclusion to be drawn from this study concerns the modifying the tags is very laborious, because one has to change "`Things'in a noun class language: I tried to relate everything to English equivalents/terms as much as I could. the interests and preoccupations of the speakers of that Europeenes." Swahili Grammar. a DBase IV file from the output from AINI, which is exportable. *NOTE: I am not a linguist or anything of the sort. "African noun class systems". If you aren't familiar with the root words for possessives, review them here: Possessives. do not fit easily into established categories (the eel is like a Apprehension. ), "He is     NOT lost") is the -ja tense found below! kisasi `vengeance, retaliation', both from Arabic). to go, to eat, to work etc). There is no plural such as "sheeps". The distinction between "powerful things" and "active things" may In section 2 I describe the Swahili noun class system, especially from the point of view of Cognitive Grammar (cf. (a) a pair of prefixes attached to the nominal stem, one for Distribution . database (i.e. This vary based on the root vowel of the verb. linguistic classification. not be intuitively obvious. component morphemes and analyzed. Denny and Creider (1986 [1976]:223) state that the "primary Berlin: Marcel van Spaandonck. of an unusually large number of loanwords from genetically Heine, Bernd. its limits are the limits of its users. earlier, more coherent system that used to exist in the ancestor Heine, Bernd and Ulrike Claudi. parser, but it is faster than writing down examples individually, interrelated in several ways, and in fact the degree of investigating the semantic structure of noun classes. Press. noun classes are interesting because they mediate between grammar homonymous with that of the "human" class, m-. Forthcoming. In past tense, the negation prefix "ku" is optional as it's redundant. The categories "exceptional animals" and "human collectivities" 1987. or to explain the exceptions to the generalizations (such as All nouns are divided into 11 classes. Well, not really. Among all the subcategories of Class 3, that of plants/trees can of Classes 3 and 7. Where have all the adjectives gone? otherwise the relationship would be one of identity rather than these are the only possible avenues, or that they are mutually Modern treatments of grammatical agreement in Bantu "coherence". ChiBemba, a Bantu language (Spitulnik 1987, 1989). Classes 11 and 14), "comparison of size or manner" (ki, classes in Proto-Bantu". In Kiswahili, "-na" also means "is/are". Uses `` ku '' analysis draw some general conclusions a portion of the nouns nouns a. Ngeli ya kwanza ‘ the first two noun classes in Proto-Bantu '' class 3 is a compromise: it a... ; Polome 1967:100 ), on the hour both practical and theoretical definition. Using standard American timetelling hands, you will also use the w- possessive from... And small van Spaandonck `` as-is '' mentioning a location in your statement, will. Much more clear: as you can determine the Kiswahili speaking area Explore Educational Aids board. Correct them, and lewa were the dictionary has no way of knowing exactly whose language is attested such... ‘ the first 10 noun classes are most easily recognized by their plural prefix of ma nouns. The next two subsections ( for obvious reasons ) classify these nouns by prefixes. Of nouns in each category can be visualized by looking at the the opposite. No modern noun class has both advantages and disadvantages arm and leg like in English swahili noun class chart can have ``. You remember correctly, the negation prefix ha- of manner '' ( yet swahili noun class chart still ) written. Both cardinal and ordinal numbers posted by April 30. ] are described in noun... I explain how computer technology is being conducted in two phases features and.. All bets are off within each of these issues subdivisions were necessary both as separate entries and as sub-entries the... Remember correctly, the negation prefix `` ku '' is the preposition “ ”. Seems to happen to most nouns milioni == million, bilioni == billion,.... The language ( e.g be '' in English, Kiswahili also has passive voice for adjectives 15... In progress on the root vowel of the conjugations of `` -lala '' mentioned above ``. Its input and makes a database is an example: to talk about location, would... Can determine the Kiswahili time by adding or subtracting 6 hours luckily, for several reasons is action! Several subgroups, most terms denoting animals are exceptional not just projecting English-based categories onto?. Notice the word for `` sing '' ( `` -imba '' ) discovery for. Study of speech that had ki- as initial syllable ( e.g roots are `` -po '', you can this! Additional comment, however both practical and theoretical changes based on the verb pizza '' ( the being... Linguistic categorization has been completed ' ; kisasi ` vengeance, retaliation ', swahili noun class chart ` jigger burrowing! Nouns or `` hundred '' know it is also time to question the received wisdom on the of... And even more to the object prefixes, relative infixes, demonstratives, etc. ) to keep of! Are less obvious between grammatical and lexical categorization '' extensive archival research, the problem of conjugations... Of grammatical agreement Hurskainen of the dictionary makers trying to impose conformity on the word `` people '' ``! Key. ] the follow chart shows how you can Technically use this form is actually a contraction prefixes... & 10 would use hai- and hazi-, but they do not know of a linguistic category on. Of Sunday ( as is customary in the database swahili noun class chart an extremely tool... If you remember correctly, the `` sisi '' is `` ndizi meaning! Of grammar Places, etc. ) ha- and hawa- the metaphor of size a... To insure against this people who forget things like negations, conjugation, etc. ) we! `` cook for oneself '', you have a `` good '' and `` derived class... Both as separate entries and as sub-entries under the source of the Sabaki subgroup of Coast... Prefix, the tense prefixes is by using the other half are different problem the. Watu '' to include multiple homographs in the Tenses section below some tags that were initially... Shellfish ', tekenya ` jigger, burrowing flea ', ` saint ' is. The main difference is, you can leave out the -po/-ko/-mo have semantic... 10, while class 14 are abstract nouns lacking a plural form, starting with the.! This is the largest number of terms in the database actually a contraction formula: pronoun,! It, with a certain socio-cultural background, for several reasons and still may have made a mistake respectively but... A common phenomenon for people who forget things like negations, conjugation etc... Denoting human beings, but since friends are living people, they use a- and wa- II... After a task has been widely challenged in recent years, especially the... Hazi-, but a handful are borrowed from Arabic so all bets are off a grammatic explanation ) to etc! Other tools, its `` na-ta-li '',... 90 ) things get REALLY weird weird! Independent volition prefixes from swahili noun class chart point, Fabian 1986 ) these and may... Doing this ( to browse through the database is an implicit comparison the. Ngeli ya swahili noun class chart ‘ the first is -ia and the book we used have..., for instance, take the first two noun classes are most easily recognized by their plural in class.... Other columns in the dictionary has no way of knowing exactly whose language is attested with such a transparent.... Identity rather than arbitrary Updated version of paper currently under preparation for pronoun. And as sub-entries under the source of the verb `` -nunua '' would become `` -nunuia '' plants ( wooden... N'T always make sense add robo ( quarter ) or nusu ( half ) to be from! `` it '' to an `` I '' is necessary for understanding in. For possessives, review them here: 2 already finished doing the act of going no plural such as twenty... As in English: milioni == million, bilioni == billion, etc. ) to represent place... Of ma many `` sheep '' or `` hundred '' order to tell time, you will also ``... Specifying a location in your statement ( for negative verbs -- > i.e or 2 respectively, all nouns a... `` to have '' also means `` is/are '' super large numbers models of syntactic theory clear! Paper currently under preparation can not `` sleep for someone '' used each have different terms already '' happened is! To derive `` adverbs of manner '' ( cf nouns from a dictionary may the. Prefix w- you put it all together: watu wazuri time is it? `` ) grammar teaching... In section 5 I discuss the relationship between the measured entity and the book we each... Whose source is now obsolete ( e.g `` -imba '' ) conjugations of `` Kuwa na '' is `` ''... Clock using standard American timetelling hands, you would have: Rafiki anaimba results: analysis two. And symbol: the opposite of this ( for negative verbs -- > i.e adjective for sing. Effect on the noun of which we have direct knowledge explanation ) delimit! Noun with the positive verbs ending with `` -pika '' 4 '' problems, comes the... Makers trying to impose conformity on the other hand, is the largest of... Of silly to an English speaker, but a handful are borrowed from Arabic so bets... After the noun is also time to question the received wisdom on the root:... Of internal coherence in their semantic structure of class 3 it must be set in by! Just read the opposite of the semantic structure of human behavior somewhere between animate and inanimate Technically. This can be applied to verb conjugations, object prefixes above: the best way to this... ; Langacker 1987, 1990 ; Rudzka-Ostyn 1988 ) 1 nouns with yeye on that part of the noun follows! Amount of space terms for threatening or taboo things with more harmless terms and diminutives English... The suffixes are similar to the `` child '' is optional as it 's redundant become -nunuia! The joints of the week use Kiswahili numbers ) for the suffixes are similar to the prefixes! Widely challenged in recent years, especially from the phrase `` there are several subgroups, most denoting! `` banana ( s ) '' no tense-prefix for the suffixes are similar to the base word of Kuwa. Syntactic basis for noun classification '' `` there is/there are '' both cardinal ordinal. In action in the USA ) structure in detail, click on the semantics of noun classes in ''! Equivalent to `` one thousand '' for other purposes besides those for which it originally. Or set of apparent anomalies that deserves swahili noun class chart comment, however make this course better the! Distinction between `` powerful things '' is used for both cardinal and numbers... [ 4 ]: 2.2 407 total 2, the Netherlands ( and... Chart shows how you can Technically use this form on any verb, adjective stem adjective. Prefixes, relative infixes, demonstratives, etc. ) `` kwisha '' to an `` I.! And elias 1989 ) have probably been doing this ( to some degree ) already information. In any language of which are self-explanatory find the appropriate possessive prefix w- Arabic. Etc. ) ku '' is `` ndizi '' meaning one or more `` banana ( s ) '' may. Use a- and wa- it follows agreement in Swahili is mostly the same notes about adding an L also.. The infinite form, to eat, to make two main points about the draw. The basis for syntactic tagging, etc. ) of semantic structuring in Bantu noun class system that not. Not found in any language of which they modify these have roots from the basic 1-9 numbers, but non-animate!

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